Most employers know that the real costs from employee benefits come from unhealthy choices by employees. Premiums are just one indicator of the “health” of the group, but there are other soft costs that add up to large expenditures of capital. Low productivity and staffing issues can also be major cost drivers for the employer. Here are a few tips that you can share with your staff, or better yet, build into a custom Employee Wellness Program:
Get the Nutrition Facts
As you and your family strive to eat healthier, you should be aware of what is in the food you consume. The best way to know what is in the food products you buy is to read the nutrition facts on food labels.
The following information on labels will help you understand how much is in a portion and how this compares to recommended intake:
- Serving size – The serving size lists the recommended amount to be eaten by a single person. The rest of the nutrition facts are based on this amount.
- Calories and calories from fat – Especially important if you’re trying to lose or maintain weight, these numbers tell you how many calories are in each serving and where they’re coming from.
- Percent daily values – Based on the recommended consumption of 2,000 calories a day, this value indicates how the food product compares to recommended amounts.
When reading ingredients on a product label, keep in mind that ingredients are listed in descending order: ingredients with the greatest amount will be listed first, followed by ingredients used in lesser amounts.
FDA Bans Artificial Trans Fats by 2018
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced that artificial trans fats are no longer Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) and is requiring that they be phased out of the food supply by 2018.
While trans-fat does occur naturally in some meat and dairy products, many processed foods, such as crackers, coffee creamer and margarine, contain artificial trans fats. Artificial trans fats are created in partially hydrogenated oils (PHO)’s, which are oils that have been infused with hydrogen. This process keeps the oils solid at room temperature, and is used to maintain flavor and increase the shelf life of processed foods. Intake of trans fat has been shown to cause various health problems, including high cholesterol and coronary heart disease.
Strengthen Your Core with Plank Exercises
Core muscles are one of the most active muscle groups in the body. Whether you are typing, putting on your shoes, vacuuming or playing basketball, you are engaging your core muscles in some capacity. Because you use core muscles for so many activities, it is important to keep them strong and flexible. There are several specific benefits to maintaining a healthy core:
- Strong back muscles. Many people suffer from debilitating low-back pain. A strong core can relieve the lower back from extra strain and pressure.
- Improved balance and stability. A strong core stabilizes your whole body, increasing your range of motion and decreasing your risk of falling.
- Good posture. Often overlooked, posture is an important factor in overall health. By standing tall, your core muscles can minimize wear on the spine and allow you to breathe more deeply.
Core fitness should be factored into any exercise plan. The plank pose is a popular and effective exercise that is great no matter what your fitness goals are.
To try the plank, get into a pushup position. Bend your elbows so your forearms are resting on the floor directly underneath your shoulders. Focus on creating a straight line with your body from head to toe, and try to hold the pose for as long as you can (if this is too challenging at first, you can try bending your knees). Many people struggle to hold a plank pose for 30 seconds on their first attempt, but, with regular practice, you should be able to hold the position for longer intervals. A good goal if you’re just getting started is to work up to a two-minute plank.
Once you are able to hold this position for two minutes, you can move on to more advanced versions of the plank pose, such as lifting an arm or leg, or resting your forearms on an exercise ball.
Contact us today for more information on how to drive down costs by increasing your employee’s connection to wellness.
On July 15, 2015, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) issued an administrative interpretation to clarify how to determine whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor.
Employee misclassification is a growing concern for the DOL. An increasing number of U.S. workplaces are restructuring their business organizations, creating a higher risk of misclassifying employees as independent contractors.
Employer misclassification has a direct impact on employee eligibility for benefits, legal protections (such as minimum wage and overtime rights) and taxation.
Worker Classification Tests
Several tests exist to determine whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor. The most common tests include the common law or agency test, the economic realities test, the hybrid test and the IRS test.
Traditionally, the DOL has favored using the six-factor economic realities test because this test seeks to determine whether a worker is economically dependent on his or her employer or whether the worker is in business for him- or herself. The DOL’s rationale is that if the worker is economically dependent on the employer, the worker should be classified as an employee and protected by employment laws, including the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).
The Economic Realities Test
The six factors for the economic realities test are:
- Whether the worker’s job is an integral part of the employer’s business;
- Whether the worker’s managerial skill affects his or her opportunity for profit or loss;
- Whether the worker’s and the employer’s investments are comparable;
- Whether the work performed requires special skills and initiative;
- Whether the relationship between the worker and the employer is permanent or indefinite; and
- An analysis of the nature and degree of the employer’s control over the worker.
In the administrative interpretation, the DOL emphasized repeatedly that no one factor is determinative and that the factors should not be applied in a mechanical fashion. Rather, the DOL encourages employers to use the six factors as a guide in their efforts to classify workers correctly.
The DOL further explains that the six factors should be interpreted within the context of the FLSA’s definition of employment. The FLSA defines “to employ” as to suffer or permit someone to work. The DOL explains that this broad definition of employment was “specifically designed to ensure as broad of a scope of statutory coverage as possible.” This “suffer or permit” standard prevents employers from using agents to evade labor and employment responsibilities. According to the DOL, under the economic realities test, most workers will be considered employees subject to the FLSA.
An Integral Part of the Employer’s Business
A worker that performs activities that are an integral part of the employer’s business is more likely to be dependent on the employer, and, therefore, should be classified as an employee.
The administrative interpretation states that the courts have found the “integral” factor to be compelling even when the activity in question is just one component of the business or is performed by hundreds or thousands of other workers. For example, the DOL states, “a worker answering calls at a call center along with hundreds of others is performing work that is integral to the call center’s business, even if that work is the same as, and interchangeable with, many others’ work.”
The DOL also mentioned that work can be integral to an employers’ business even if it is performed away from the employer’s premises, at the worker’s home or even on the premises of the employers’ customers.
The focus of this factor is whether the worker’s managerial skill can affect his or her opportunity for profit or loss. To determine profit or loss opportunities, employers should look beyond the job at hand and determine whether the worker’s skills can lead to additional business from other parties or reduce the opportunities for future work.
When evaluating this factor, employers should consider a worker’s decision to hire others, purchase materials and equipment, advertise, rent space and manage timetables.
The DOL specifically mentions that a worker’s ability to work more hours and the amount of work available from the employer have “nothing to do with the worker’s managerial skills and do little to separate employees from independent contractors.” This is because both are likely to earn more if they work more and if there is more work available.
To determine whether the employer and worker investments are comparable, employers should look at the nature and the extent of the investments.
An independent contractor should make some investment and undertake at least some risk of loss if he or she is in business for him- or herself. The investment should support a business beyond any particular job. These types of investments include furthering the business’ capacity to expand, reducing business cost structure and extending the reach of the independent contractor’s market.
However, a worker’s investments should not be considered in isolation. They should be compared to the employer’s investment. If the worker’s investment is relatively minor, the employer and the worker may not be on the same footing and the worker may be economically dependent on the employer.
Finally, investing in tools and equipment is not an automatic indication of significant investment or that the worker is an independent contractor. This type of investment must be compared to the worker’s investment in his or her overall business and to the employer’s investment in the project and perhaps in its overall activities.
Special Skills and Initiative
A worker’s skills and initiative can be an indicator of economic independence. However, when considering a worker’s skill, employers should consider the worker’s business skills, judgement and initiative, rather than his or her technical skills, which are often required to perform the work. Special skills and initiative are indicators of economic independence when the worker can use them in an independent way, such as demonstrating business-like initiative.
The DOL provides the following illustrative examples:
|A highly skilled carpenter provides carpentry services for a construction firm; however, such skills are not exercised in an independent manner. For example, the carpenter does not make any independent judgments at the job site beyond the work that he is doing for that job; he does not determine the sequence of work, order additional materials, or think about bidding the next job, but rather is told what work to perform where. In this scenario, the carpenter, although highly-skilled technically, is not demonstrating the skill and initiative of an independent contractor (such as managerial and business skills). He is simply providing his skilled labor.|
|In contrast, a highly skilled carpenter who provides a specialized service for a variety of area construction companies, for example, custom, handcrafted cabinets that are made-to-order, may be demonstrating the skill and initiative of an independent contractor if the carpenter markets his services, determines when to order materials and the quantity of materials to order, and determines which orders to fill.|
Permanent or Indefinite Employment
Employment that is permanent or indefinite in character suggests that the worker is an employee. Most independent contractors will avoid permanent or indefinite work relationships and are usually hired to work until a job or a project is complete (even if this takes several months or years). Moreover, once a job or project is complete, the independent contractor does not necessarily continue to provide his or her services to the employer.
Employers should consider a worker’s reasons for intermittent, seasonal, permanent or indefinite employment. Neither working for others nor having multiple sources of income transforms a worker into an independent contractor. The key is to determine “whether the lack of permanence or indefiniteness is due to operational characteristics intrinsic to the industry (such as employers that hire part-time workers or use staffing agencies) or the worker’s own business initiative.”
For seasonal employment, the proper test to determine permanency is whether the employees worked for the entire operative period of a particular season, not whether the worker returns from season to season.
Nature and Degree of Employer Control
An independent contractor controls meaningful aspects of the work he or she performs. This type of control should lead objective observers to conclude that the worker is conducting his or her own business.
Control over meaningful aspects of the work may extend beyond controlling working hours and could include work schedules, dress code and task prioritization.
The DOL asserts that this control cannot be theoretical and explains that what counts is not what the worker could have done, but what the worker actually does.
Finally, the DOL warns that the control factor should not “play an oversized role” and dwarf other factors in the economic realities test when determining whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor.
Please contact us for additional information on appropriate worker classification. We provide Solutions for Business. Solutions….that Work!
What Employers Should Know
The Supreme Court’s decision impacts the legality of same-sex marriages throughout the country. By ruling that state laws prohibiting same-sex marriage are unconstitutional, the Supreme Court has effectively legalized same-sex marriage in all 50 states. Same-sex couples will be allowed to marry in any state, and will be entitled to the all the rights, benefits and obligations given to opposite-sex spouses under both federal and state law.
Also, due to the Supreme Court’s ruling, employers will generally be required to treat employees in same-sex marriages the same as employees in opposite-sex marriages for many federal and state law purposes.
Many federal laws have already been interpreted to include both same-sex and opposite-sex marriages due to the Supreme Court’s decision on DOMA. The Supreme Court’s most recent ruling will expand these legal rights and protections to additional couples.
Also, many state law leave rights for legally married spouses should extend to employees with same-sex spouses. Same-sex married couples should also be subject to the same state tax rules as opposite-sex married couples. State insurance laws may require employers with insured health plans to offer equal health plan coverage to opposite-sex and same-sex couples.
The Supreme Court did not consider whether federal nondiscrimination laws should be expanded to protect workers from discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. However, a number of states have laws that prohibit such workplace discrimination. Employers should keep any applicable laws in mind when providing any rights or benefits to employees.
Call us today for a full analysis. It’s up to you to make sure you and your business are compliant with the law, both Federally and within your particular State….and we can help!
The Effect of E-cigarettes on Health
E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular in recent years. While many adult smokers switch to e-cigarettes in an attempt to quit tobacco, teenagers are the largest and fastest growing population for e-cigarette use. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products reported that e-cigarette use among teens tripled in 2014.
While e-cigarettes are commonly believed to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes, very little is known about their effect on the body. Research has found that e-cigarette vapors produce particles containing harmful chemicals. These chemicals can harm lung tissue and worsen acute respiratory diseases such as asthma and bronchitis. Consider limiting your use of e-cigarettes until further research has been conducted.
Shop the Farmers Market
Nothing is more frustrating than fruit or veggies going bad before you are able to eat them. Produce purchased in supermarkets is usually harvested long before it is found on grocery store shelves; in fact, it is estimated that produce travels an average of 1,500 miles from its source before reaching our homes. Because of this, many fruits and vegetables aren’t at peak freshness and need to be eaten within a few days of purchase. Your local farmers market can help bridge the gap from farm to table.
There are several benefits to buying locally sourced food: you support local farmers, you can buy in-season produce and your perishable food items will last much longer because they come fresh from the farm. During the summer months, farmers markets offer a rainbow of delicious and healthy options to choose from; sweet corn, bell peppers and eggplant are all in season during the summer months and can most likely be found in plentiful supply at your local farmers market.
There is often such a variety at farmers markets that you can always find something you’ve never tried before. Aren’t sure how to prepare your newly discovered fruits and veggies? Just ask! Many vendors are passionate about the food they produce and are often more than happy to offer preparation tips and tasty recipes for you to try.
Farmers markets aren’t just for produce. You can also find locally sourced eggs, meat, jams and baked goods at farmers markets. Flowers, crafts and jewelry are popular items as well. In addition, farmers markets are a great way to connect with your community; you can get to know your local farmers, catch up with friends and spend time with your family.
Now that summer is here, check out your local farmers market. Buying local is a great way for you to eat healthier and save money.
Outdoor Summer Activities
There are plenty of reasons to get outside and enjoy the sunshine this summer. Spending time outdoors can increase energy, improve your mood and burn calories. Just remember to wear sunscreen and stay hydrated!
Below are some fun outdoor activities to get you moving:
- Swimming: This full-body workout burns about 476 calories per hour.
- Hiking: Burn around 442 calories per hour while spending quality time outdoors.
- Biking: This low-impact activity burns about 476 calories per hour and strengthens your legs.
- Volleyball: You can burn around 544 calories per hour playing this beach sport.
This classic dish incorporates seasonal summer vegetables like eggplant and red bell peppers.
- 1 Tbsp. vegetable oil
- 1 large yellow onion, chopped
- 4 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 medium eggplant, peeled and diced
- 2 zucchini, diced
- 1 red bell pepper, diced
- 1 tsp. dried basil
- ½ tsp. dried oregano
- 3½ cups tomatoes, diced
- 1 lemon, quartered
- ¼ cup fresh basil leaves, chopped
Put a large pot on the stove over medium-low heat, and when it is hot, add the oil. Add the onion and garlic and cook until golden, about 10 minutes. Add the eggplant, zucchini, bell pepper, basil and oregano and cook covered until the eggplant is very soft—about 40 minutes. Add the tomatoes and cook uncovered for 20 minutes. Serve right away, garnished with lemon quarters and basil, or cover and refrigerate up to three days.
Yield: 8 servings. Each serving provides 77 calories, 2 g of fat, 0 g of saturated fat, 18 mg of sodium, 3 g of protein and 5 g of fiber.
For a custom Employee Wellness program, contact us today!
Supreme Court Rules on Abercrombie Religious Discrimination Case
On June 1, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Abercrombie & Fitch in a high-profile religious discrimination case. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of a Muslim woman who was denied employment with Abercrombie due to wearing a headscarf, or hijab, in violation of the company’s “look policy.”
The Supreme Court held that to prove a violation of federal law, an applicant must only show that the need for a religious accommodation was a motivating factor in the employer’s decision. Whether the employer had actual knowledge of the need for an accommodation is irrelevant. An employer may not make an applicant’s religious practice—confirmed or otherwise—a factor in employment decisions.
Samantha Elauf, a practicing Muslim woman, was determined to be eligible for employment at Abercrombie after her first interview. The assistant store manager asked upper management whether Elauf’s headscarf, which she thought may be for religious reasons, conflicted with Abercrombie’s policy against caps. The assistant store manager was told not to hire Elauf because her headscarf would violate Abercrombie’s “look policy.” The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) sued on Elauf’s behalf, claiming violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
The question presented to the Supreme Court was whether the prohibition on discrimination under Title VII applies only when an applicant has informed the employer of the need for an accommodation. The Supreme Court disagreed with the Court of Appeals, holding that an applicant does not need to prove an employer had actual knowledge of a need for a religious accommodation. Rather, a job applicant can prove discrimination if he or she can show the need for accommodation was a motivating factor in the employer’s decision.
The Supreme Court’s decision confirms current practice for many employers. However, the ruling establishes a lower standard to prove discrimination. Employers should not base hiring decisions on an assumption that an applicant may require some form of accommodation. You should also consider whether you can accommodate applicant requests without undue hardship.
DID YOU KNOW?
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) certification forms expired Feb. 28, 2015. Since that date, the Department of Labor (DOL) extended the expiration date of the forms by 30 days while the revised FMLA forms were under review with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
The DOL has now posted new model FMLA medical certifications and notices with an expiration date of May 31, 2018. The new forms are identical to the previous forms. However, the new medical certifications include instructions not to provide genetic information in accordance with the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA).
DOL Sends Proposed FLSA Regulations to OMB
In March 2014, President Barack Obama directed the Secretary of Labor, Thomas Perez, to revise the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to increase the number of workers who are eligible for overtime pay.
Over a year later, the DOL has sent proposed regulations that aim to “modernize and streamline the existing overtime regulations for executive, administrative, and professional employees” to the OMB for review. After the review, the proposed regulations will be made available to the public for comment.
The proposed regulations may affect the number of employees at your company who are eligible for overtime pay. In addition to staying up to date on the proposed regulations, you should assess your current workforce to prepare for possible changes.
For example, complete an audit to make sure your organization’s job descriptions are current and accurately reflect the duties and required skills of each position. This will be a powerful tool when navigating the proposed regulations.
Medicare Supplement Plans
If you are getting close to your 65th birthday, you are likely preparing to enroll in Medicare. Enrolling in Medicare and figuring out how to decrease your out-of-pocket health care expenses can be daunting, but a Medicare supplement plan can do just that—save you money and provide peace of mind.
Original Medicare, which consists of Medicare Part A and Part B, typically does not cover all of an individual’s health care costs. In order to fill the gap, many individuals purchase a Medicare supplement plan. Medicare supplement plans, also known as Medigap policies, are policies that can be purchased to cover expenses that Medicare does not pay.
The most common supplemental plans provide coverage for the out-of-pocket expenses that are not paid by Medicare, such as copays, deductibles, coinsurance, as well as some services that may not be covered by Medicare, such as international travel emergencies. Plans vary, so look for a plan that provides the coverage you need.
In order to be eligible for Medicare supplement plans, you must be enrolled in Medicare Part A and Part B, and you cannot be enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan. If you are under 65 and receive Medicare as part of your disability benefits, you may be eligible to purchase a Medicare supplement plan depending on the state in which you live. In addition, only one person can be covered by each Medicare supplement plan. You will need to purchase separate policies if both you and your spouse want this type of coverage.
When to Enroll
The ideal time to purchase a Medicare supplement plan is during your Medigap open enrollment period. This is the six-month period beginning on the first day of the month that you turn age 65 or older and enroll in Medicare Part B. During this period, you will not be denied coverage for any pre-existing health conditions. In other words, you can purchase a Medicare supplement plan of your choice for the same premium that a healthy person without pre-existing conditions would pay. If you do not enroll in a Medicare supplement plan during your Medigap open enrollment period, you will not be guaranteed coverage, and you may potentially be denied coverage or charged a higher premium due to your medical history or pre-existing health conditions.
How to Purchase
Medicare supplement plans are sold by private insurance companies, and you will usually pay a monthly premium. Insurance companies selling Medicare supplement plans do not need to adhere to the same requirements as standard Medicare policies. This means that the cost of Medicare supplement plans can vary due to a number of factors, including the plan’s service area, your age when you enrolled in Medicare or your age when you enroll in a Medicare supplement plan. Because premiums and out-of-pocket costs can vary, it is a good idea to have your broker help you shop around. He or she can ensure you find the best rate and policy to suit your needs.
For more information or help finding the right Medicare supplement policy for you, contact your CIBC of Illinois, Inc. representative. We have Medicare Specialists on staff, ready to provide the right Medicare solution for you or your family. Don’t fall into cookie-cutter options!
This Know Your Benefits article is provided by CIBC of Illinois, Inc. and is to be used for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of an insurance professional. Visit us at http://www.cibcinc.com.
Agencies Plan to Issue Final Rules for SBC Requirements
On March 31, 2015, the Departments of Labor (DOL), Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Treasury (Departments) issued Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) announcing their intention to issue final regulations for the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) summary of benefits and coverage (SBC) and uniform glossary requirement. These regulations will finalize the proposed regulations from Dec. 22, 2014.
The ACA requires these disclosure tools—the SBC and uniform glossary—to help consumers compare available coverage options. The requirement to provide them applies to both grandfathered and non-grandfathered plans.
Health plan issuers must provide the SBC to applicants and enrollees free of charge. The SBC is a concise document that provides simple and consistent information about health plan benefits and coverage.
The final regulations are expected to be released in the near future and will apply for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2016 (including open enrollment periods in fall of 2015 for coverage beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2016).
The updated template and related documents, including sample language and instructions, for the SBC and uniform glossary will not be issued until January 2016. The updated template will then apply for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2017. Until further guidance is issued, the previously updated template provided on the DOL’s website on April 23, 2014, continues to be authorized.
The March 31 FAQ guidance leaves a lot of uncertainty for employers in regard to their SBC documents. The changes included in the final regulations may require health plans to update their SBC documents before the new template is released.
The forthcoming final regulations may address this issue. In some cases, the Departments have provided temporary enforcement safe harbors when guidance is not issued sufficiently in advance of an effective date. However, at this time, no safe harbors or other relief has been provided on this issue.
Plan Offerings Now Diverging by Group Size
A new trend of health plan offerings has emerged over the past few years. Group size appears to be a determining factor in whether employers are offering more generous health plans or working on implementing more cost-sharing strategies for health benefits.
Large organizations—with more than 500 lives—tend to offer generous health plans, likely in an effort to use their benefits packages as recruiting and retention tools in a market that is becoming increasingly fierce.
Smaller groups are cutting back on benefits and using cost-sharing efforts with employees. This trend of leaner benefits with smaller groups is likely an effort to bring down expenses associated with rising health care costs and other costs related to the ACA.
For more information on how your benefits offerings compare to other employers, contact CIBC of Illinois, Inc. for benchmarking information.
DID YOU KNOW?
On May 4, 2015, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) released Revenue Procedure 2015-30 to announce the inflation-adjusted limits for health savings accounts (HSAs) for calendar year 2016.
The following limits apply for 2016:
- The HSA contribution limit is $3,350 for self-only and $6,750 for family.
- The minimum deductible for high deductible health plans (HDHPs) is $1,300 for self-only and $2,600 for family.
- The maximum out-of-pocket for HDHPs is $6,550 for self-only and $13,100 for family.
On May 4, 2015, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) released Revenue Procedure 2015-30 to announce the inflation-adjusted limits for health savings accounts (HSAs) for calendar year 2016. The IRS announced the following limits for 2016:
- The maximum HSA contribution limit;
- The minimum deductible amount for high deductible health plans (HDHPs); and
- The maximum out-of-pocket expense limit for HDHPs.
These limits vary based on whether an individual has self-only or family coverage under an HDHP.
Only some of the HSA limits will increase for 2016. The limits that will increase are the HSA contribution limit for individuals with family HDHP coverage and the maximum out-of-pocket expense limit for self-only and family HDHP coverage.
|Type of Limit||2015||2016||Change|
|HSA Contribution Limit||Self-only||$3,350||$3,350||No change|
|HSA Catch-up Contributions (not subject to adjustment for inflation)||Age 55 or older||$1,000||$1,000||No change|
|HDHP Minimum Deductible||Self-only||$1,300||$1,300||No change|
|HDHP Maximum Out-of-pocket Expense Limit (deductibles, copayments and other amounts, but not premiums)||Self-only||$6,450||$6,550||Up $100|
Just let us know if you have any other questions about this, or any other aspect of the Affordable Care Act.
http://www.CIBCINC.com / 1-866-936-3580
Over four million babies are born in the United States every year, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccination against 16 vaccine preventable diseases. Unfortunately, not all parents ensure their children are properly immunized.
Keeping Kids Healthy
Before vaccinations became widely available, diseases like measles, mumps and whooping cough were common in childhood, leaving thousands of children blind, deaf, brain-damaged or even dead. Today, vaccines have almost completely wiped out these major diseases.
What Is a Vaccination?
A vaccination (or an immunization) contains an imitation virus, typically a live but weakened virus, or an inactive bacteria virus, that is administered to protect against serious diseases. This virus causes the body to produce antibodies, special agents of the immune system that attack harmful elements inside the body. While fighting the imitation virus, the antibodies learn to recognize the real virus so they can attack it when the body is exposed to it. Researchers have found that live virus vaccinations seem to provide longer immunity than inactive ones.
Vaccinations are usually administered in one of two ways: orally or by injection. Doctors have found that vaccines administered orally tend to have a higher chance of side effects and allergic reactions than injected vaccines.
Possible Side Effects
Overall, vaccines are safe to administer and typically only cause minor side effects. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the risk of effects related to actually contracting a disease is much more dangerous than the risk of having a serious reaction to a vaccination. However, there have been a few cases of major reactions in small children, such as:
- Extremely high fever—A rectal temperature reading of 105 degrees or more
- Inconsolable crying—More than three hours of crying without stopping, or an abnormal cry
- Convulsions—Full-body shaking, twitching or jerking in response to a high fever
- Severe allergic reactions—Swelling in the mouth and throat, wheezing, breathing difficulties, dizziness, paleness or limpness.
Should your child suffer from any of the above symptoms after receiving his or her vaccinations, call your doctor immediately.
Although today in the United States epidemics of infectious diseases are rare, bacteria and viruses that cause many diseases still exist. These bacteria and viruses may affect people who are not protected by vaccines. Vaccinations are necessary because they can prevent repeated epidemics of infectious diseases.
Do I Need to Vaccinate?
Experts recommend that all children be routinely vaccinated. Most children in the United States are currently vaccinated as recommended, helping control infectious diseases that were common and deadly in the past.
Scientists, doctors and other health care professionals extensively test vaccines to make sure they are safe and effective before putting them on the market. In the United States, the FDA reviews all the test results to decide if it will approve a vaccine for use.
When Should I Vaccinate?
Newborns are immune to many diseases because of antibodies they have acquired from their mothers while in the womb. These antibodies only last from about a month to a year after birth, so it is best to vaccinate children when they are babies. However, you should still have your children vaccinated, even if you do not do it when they are babies or when they are very young—it is better for them to be vaccinated late than not at all.
By vaccinating your children when recommended, you will have to worry less about them becoming infected or infecting others, especially once they begin attending school, which increases their risk.
Vaccinations are covered by most insurance programs, but because of their importance they are available even to those without insurance. If you are not insured and cannot afford your child’s vaccinations, contact your city, county or state health department. They can help you find a place to have your child immunized where it will be inexpensive or even free.
If you are unsure when you should take your child in for vaccinations, call your health care provider for information and vaccination schedules. More information is also available at: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Immunization Hotline, 800-232-2522 or www.cdc.gov/vaccines.
Supreme Court Issues Ruling in Pregnancy Discrimination Case
On March 25, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of a former employee of United Parcel Service (UPS). The employee was faced with the choice to either continue working her labor-intensive job during pregnancy or take unpaid leave.
In its Young v. UPS decision, the Supreme Court held that the employee should be given the opportunity to prove that UPS violated the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) by not providing her the same light-duty accommodation that was given to other UPS employees who were considered injured or disabled. The PDA requires that women affected by pregnancy, childbirth or a related medical condition be treated the same for all employment-related purposes as “other persons not so affected but similar in their ability or inability to work.”
The employee in this case, Peggy Young, worked as a part-time driver for UPS. In 2006, Young became pregnant and was advised by her doctor that she should not lift more than 20 pounds. However, UPS required drivers to be
able to lift up to 70 pounds and denied Young’s lifting restriction.
Young sued UPS, alleging that it violated the PDA because it had a light-duty policy for other types of workers, including those who were injured on the job or disabled under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but not for pregnant workers. UPS argued that it treated her as it would treat other relevant individuals and therefore did not discriminate against her based on pregnancy.
In 2008, the ADA’s definition of “disability” was expanded, requiring employers to accommodate employees with temporary lifting restrictions originating outside of work. In 2014, the EEOC also issued guidance requiring employers that provide light-duty assignments to employees who are unable to perform their full duties to make similar accommodations for pregnant employees. Many employers may have already changed their policies in light of this guidance.
The Supreme Court sent the case to the lower court for further review and also outlined standards for PDA cases. An individual may show discrimination by showing that her employer did not accommodate her while pregnant but did accommodate others who are similar “in their ability or inability to work.”
The decision is a victory for pregnant workers because it establishes an easier framework to prove illegal discrimination. Employers should review their policies to make sure that they do not discriminate against pregnant workers in violation of applicable laws. A significant factor in determining whether discrimination occurred will be if the employer accommodates a large percentage of nonpregnant workers while failing to accommodate a large percentage of pregnant workers.
HR Summertime Checklist
Employers and HR departments that take time to prepare for the summer months may be able to enjoy them a bit more. Now is a good time to start considering the employee management areas outlined below to ensure a smooth summer. Think about how each area impacts your organization and whether any action should be taken.
PTO/Vacation Requests – Do managers and supervisors know how to administer employee requests to make sure appropriate staffing levels are maintained and employees are treated fairly?
Summer Hours – Will your company begin or continue a “summer hours” policy? Will it be company-wide?
Dress Code – Does your company allow for a more relaxed dress code during the summer? How long does this last?
Staffing – Are you a seasonal employer who should start hiring for the summer? Are there layoffs to be administered prior to summer? Will you be hiring interns?
Of course, the above is not an all-inclusive list and each organization is unique. Think about what the summertime season means for your organization and get prepared.
DID YOU KNOW?
Many employers have implemented wellness programs to control health care costs. However, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has filed several lawsuits against employer-sponsored wellness programs it says violate the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA).
Until more clear guidance is available, you should take note of the issues highlighted in the EEOC cases. Specifically, you should review your wellness plan to ensure participation is voluntary and that employees are not excessively penalized for refusing to participate. In addition, you should evaluate whether the information collected about employees is protected under the ADA, GINA or any other employment benefit law.
For help with any part of the Employee Benefits spectrum, call us today at 877-936-3580.